عنوان مقاله [English]
The Persian language has undergone changes from the past to the present day, and the lack of complete knowledge of it and its old words can cause a misunderstanding of the prose and verse texts of the previous centuries. Two examples of words whose incomplete knowledge has prevented their correct understanding in old texts, It is examined in this article. We have examined these two words, "Gustāx" and "Naxust", which are used in both Middle Persian and Dari Persian, to show that these words have undergone semantic changes, and their meanings in modern Persian texts are more or less It is different from their meanings in Middle Persian texts. First, he examined these words from an etymological point of view, and then with evidence from Middle Persian texts, such as Menōg Khard, Dēnkard, and Ardēshir Babakan's Karname, and New Persian texts, such as Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, and mentioning the meanings and evidences found in new cultures, such as Dehkhoda's dictionary. It has been mentioned, we have stated their semantic evolution and we have shown that the word "Gustāx" has undergone semantic evolutions from the past until now, and the meaning that poets, writers and speakers have used in recent centuries is the result of an external reaction from the states of It is a person's inner spirit, as a result, knowing the different meanings and the course of its evolution is a way to better understand the texts. Also, the examination of the word "Naxust" has shown that although the meaning of "beginning" and "beginning" existed in this word, but in some cases the meaning of "then" prevails over the meaning of "beginning".
*Maryam tayefeghashghaei, Ph.D. student of ancient languages, University of Tehran, Tehran,Iran.