نوع مقاله : پژوهشی
فرهنگ و زبانهای باستانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات
عنوان مقاله [English]
There are several literary works in ancient Iranian languages left from Pre-Islamic Iran. Among them there are some poems too. Based on existing document, Iranian poetry goes back to the time of Zarathuštra; his religious poems “Gathas” is the example of the first poems. Also other existing poems like; Derakhte Asoorig, Yadegare Zariran, Jamaspnameh, and Mani poems, which were written in Parthian Pahlavi and Sasanid Pahlavi, are worth noting. Poems in ancient Persia can be divided into two categories: the religious ones and those which are not. Iranologists believe that ancient Iranian poetry has syllabic metre, while others think that the poetry in that era has tonic metre. It is believed that, although, Yashts have tonic metre, Gathas has syllabic metre.
Till now there is no information that whether there were any class of poet in ancient Iran or not, the only thing that we are sure is that there were some group of people called “Khonyagaran” and “Gosanan” who were the poet-musician that makes the ordinary people and also royal family happy in the streets. Since they only used poetry and music so there is no written information about them.
This article tries to introduce the first Iranian poets. Among the poems that have remained, we only know the poets of some of them e.g. “Gathas” and Manichaean hymns. Although the purpose of this article is to introduce Iranian poets before Islam, our information is very limited for instance, the poet of Yashts is not known. Therefore, we could only introduce the supposed poet. Sometimes we could be sure more like “Gathas”, but in other times we are not so like “Biston inscription”, because it is not clear whether Dariush was the poet of “Biston inscription” or only he commended to write it. Hence if we do not know the exact author, only the name of the literary work is mentioned. Several orientalists and scholars are interested in ancient Persia poems among them Henning , Lazard, Utas, Boyce, Benveniste, and Tavadia are noticebale.