عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Manichean prayers are mostly in Middle Persian and Parthian. These extant prayers are mainly about the rescue of Light and salvation of man’s soul mingled with darkness and ignorance. Manichean prayers are often poetic and were recited as hymns along with composed music in specific halls allocated to prayer in Manichean temples (mānēstān). Considering these prayers, we can find out that Manichean prayers have both Personal and social aspects. Manichean daily prayers were practiced both individually and socially with special ceremonies and customs. This article aims to review the concept and place of prayers in Manichaeism through the case study of three Manichean manuscripts. In this article via applying descriptive-analytic method, it is studied 3 Middle Persian Manichean prayers: Mb, M20 and M174. The study of these prayers reflects that the Manichean prayers generally contain the fundamental principles of Manichean thoughts and mysticism. Contents such as the opposition of Light and Darkness, the salvation of captive spirit or Light, human redemption, prayers to the father of Greatness, asking for the help from gods and seeking for the savior are the main issues stated in Manichean prayers. The prayers are sometimes in the form of advices or sometimes are expressed as a request.